Non-polymer PFAS can build up in blood protein of animals, and is not always removed quickly. This means that predators eating PFAS-contaminated food will have higher levels in their bloodstream, and concentrations can increase up the food chain. Studies suggest that build up of PFAS is similar to those of other Persistent Organic Pollutants such as DDT.PFAS are estimated to be settling in arctic regions at rates of tens to hundreds of kilograms per year (25-850kg per year), depending on the specific PFAS chemical in question. Certain PFAS are released as gases to the environment and are blown a long way by wind and air currents in the atmosphere,. These gas PFAS will over time degrade to more persistent chemicals like PFOS and PFOA. This may be one reason why PFAS of environmental concern have been found in remote regions such as the Arctic as well as near PFAS production sitesPFAS including PFOS and PFOA have been found in air samples around Europe. The chemicals are found in small quantities, but appear in almost all samples tested. PFAS enters the atmosphere both from factories and the air inside our homes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17554424 PFAS is found in treated waste water from industrial and domestic sources and has been found in both rivers and groundwater. Conventional drinking water processes will not remove PFAS.PFAS-coated clothes that are thrown away will often end up either incinerated or in landfill. Unless incinerated at very high temperatures (>1000oC), fluorinated polymers could release more harmful PFAS during burning. PFAS of environmental concern have also been found in landfill leachate. Non-polymer PFAS are used in the production of fluorinated polymers. The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes generally releases these PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. They are very hard to remove during water treatment. Workers in textiles factories are some of the population most exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals. Small quantities of PFAS will be removed during wash and wear of products containing PFAS. This includes fluorinated polymers used on stain-resistant coatings, and non-polymers that remain on clothes after production (Lassen et al. 2015).Most UK waste still ends up in landfill, and this includes PFAS-containing products. Studies have shown that the liquid coming from landfills (known as leachate) often contain non-polymer PFAS chemicals. In the USA the total quantities were estimated at 563-638 kg in 2013. To properly break down PFAS chemicals high temperature (1000oC or more) incineration is recommended. Incineration of municipal waste does not necessarily reach these temperatures (min temp. required is 850oC), and the incomplete breakdown could release non-polymer PFAS.Wash and wear of clothing that contains PFAS-based stain-resistant or water repellent finishes release PFAS to the environment. Coatings are thought to lose effectiveness after 20-30 washes. This can include non-polymer PFAS, remnant from production or as a break-down product of side-chain polymers (Lassen et al. 2015). The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes releases PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. PFAS are very hard to remove during water treatment. Industrial emissions are estimated to be the biggest source of these chemicals to the environment.
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ECHA lists another PFAS as harmful to the environment

Good news for the environment as more PFAS are identified as a ‘substances of very high concern’. But is it enough?

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Stain resistant uniforms go PFAS free on the high street

High street shops are now stocking PFAS free stain resistant school uniforms but environmental impact of alternative stain resistance in unclear

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New uniforms fact sheet available to download

Confused about PFAS? Want to make sure you’re making the right choice for you when it comes to your next uniform purchase? Download our free fact sheet!

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Zürich Statement warns unregulated PFASs on the market are ‘a long-term concern’

50 scientists and policy makers warn that the vast number and range of unregulated PFASs on the market and in the environment are a long- term concern. Zurich statement on Future Actions on PFASs.

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The history of PFASs highlights how chemical risk assessment can fail- says expert

Professor Phillippe Grandjean calls for new methods of risk assessment to ensure PFAS replacements are evaluated properly before use.

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Press Release: Launch of PFASfree website

Fidra’s press release, launching this website and highlighting our customer survey results.

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L’Oréal eliminates PFAS from their cosmetic products

The consumer giant is one of 6 major companies to agree to a full phase-out of these harmful substances

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Our School Survey Results are out

We asked parents about their school uniform washing and buying habits – results available now.

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New report on PFAS toxicity released in the USA

The report recommends lowering the lowest acceptable levels for PFAS in drinking water, due to renewed health concerns.

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A visit to Sweden to meet the POPFREE team

Find out more about our participation in POPFREE, an international, multi-stakeholder research project aiming to find PFAS-free alternatives for many different consumer products.