Non-polymer PFAS can build up in blood protein of animals, and is not always removed quickly. This means that predators eating PFAS-contaminated food will have higher levels in their bloodstream, and concentrations can increase up the food chain. Studies suggest that build up of PFAS is similar to those of other Persistent Organic Pollutants such as DDT.PFAS are estimated to be settling in arctic regions at rates of tens to hundreds of kilograms per year (25-850kg per year), depending on the specific PFAS chemical in question. Certain PFAS are released as gases to the environment and are blown a long way by wind and air currents in the atmosphere,. These gas PFAS will over time degrade to more persistent chemicals like PFOS and PFOA. This may be one reason why PFAS of environmental concern have been found in remote regions such as the Arctic as well as near PFAS production sitesPFAS including PFOS and PFOA have been found in air samples around Europe. The chemicals are found in small quantities, but appear in almost all samples tested. PFAS enters the atmosphere both from factories and the air inside our homes. PFAS is found in treated waste water from industrial and domestic sources and has been found in both rivers and groundwater. Conventional drinking water processes will not remove PFAS.PFAS-coated clothes that are thrown away will often end up either incinerated or in landfill. Unless incinerated at very high temperatures (>1000oC), fluorinated polymers could release more harmful PFAS during burning. PFAS of environmental concern have also been found in landfill leachate. Non-polymer PFAS are used in the production of fluorinated polymers. The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes generally releases these PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. They are very hard to remove during water treatment. Workers in textiles factories are some of the population most exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals. Small quantities of PFAS will be removed during wash and wear of products containing PFAS. This includes fluorinated polymers used on stain-resistant coatings, and non-polymers that remain on clothes after production (Lassen et al. 2015).Most UK waste still ends up in landfill, and this includes PFAS-containing products. Studies have shown that the liquid coming from landfills (known as leachate) often contain non-polymer PFAS chemicals. In the USA the total quantities were estimated at 563-638 kg in 2013. To properly break down PFAS chemicals high temperature (1000oC or more) incineration is recommended. Incineration of municipal waste does not necessarily reach these temperatures (min temp. required is 850oC), and the incomplete breakdown could release non-polymer PFAS.Wash and wear of clothing that contains PFAS-based stain-resistant or water repellent finishes release PFAS to the environment. Coatings are thought to lose effectiveness after 20-30 washes. This can include non-polymer PFAS, remnant from production or as a break-down product of side-chain polymers (Lassen et al. 2015). The manufacture of stain-resistant finishes releases PFASs into the environment, both by air and water emissions. PFAS are very hard to remove during water treatment. Industrial emissions are estimated to be the biggest source of these chemicals to the environment.


How can you and your school help to protect the environment through your school uniform choices? Why not start by helping us eliminate PFAS-based coatings on uniforms? Here are some ideas of how to get involved:

  1. Download our fact sheet. Want to share information with your school? We have created a fact sheet for parents/ carers that tells you why and how to buy PFAS-free and coating-free uniforms. You can download the fact sheet for free by clicking the button below, and share it with your parents.
  2. Contact your uniform suppliers. Does your school order in uniforms for parents to purchase? If so, you can ask your supplier for options without stain-resistance, or for PFAS-free coatings.
  3. Have any questions or comments? Why not get in touch with us? We’d be happy to answer your questions related to PFAS and stain-resistance.

Fidra’s School Uniform Survey

Our school survey suggests stain resistance is not benefiting parents / carers as promised.

We have carried out our own independent research and found that whilst people value ‘stain-resistant’ finishes, they gain little actual benefit. We found no decrease in how often people washed school uniforms related to the ‘stain resistant’ finish, and no decrease in how often people replaced the school uniforms.

By looking into the specifics of the branded finishes offered to customers we also learnt that most finishes only last 10 or 20 washes. We calculated this represented less than a third of the average ‘first-use’ life (i.e. takes no account of use by subsequent children).

Visit our School Uniform Survey page to find out more about our school survey and download a copy of the report.